Business, Human resources

Business, Human resources: Basic interview questions

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Business, Human resources

Business, Human resources: Ace Your Next Job Interview: How to Answer 20 Common Questions

Originally, written by Dana Sitar (@danasitar) a staff writer at The Penny Hoarder. She’s written for Huffington Post,, Writer’s Digest and more.


In about 14 years of working, I’ve sat through a dozen or so job interviews.

While every job may be unique, the interviews often are not.

Some companies may throw you a curveball or even engage you in a candid conversation — but most job interviews will simply guide you through the same series of basic questions.

It sounds boring (and it can be), but you can actually use this repetitiveness to your advantage!

Before heading to your next job interview, arm yourself with answers to these common questions:

1- Walk me through your work history, Let’s review your resume:

Why is the interviewer asking for your work history with your resume sitting inches away?

They may just want to hear how you frame your work history.

Or maybe they want you to explain any gaps in employment or frequent job-hopping.

This is your chance to paint the picture of your work experience in a more useful and interesting way than the mundane list on your resume.

2- What are your strengths:

Time to show off!

You applied to this job because you believed you could do it. Why was that again?

Prepare ahead of time, and think carefully about this question.

Every interviewee is going to tout their strong work ethic, ability to be a team player, experience in the field and other generic traits necessary to do the job well.

Stand out by showcasing your unique strengths.

What do you bring to a team that most people don’t? What made you shine in previous jobs? Why do your friends love being around you?

Also make sure you know what the company is looking for. Read the job description carefully.

It tells you exactly what they’re looking for — and even includes some buzzwords they might want to hear!

3- what are your weaknesses:

What you really want to say is, “I didn’t come here to talk about that.”

What you might think you should say is, “Sometimes I’m just too excited about my job.”

What you actually should say is… something real.

Everyone enters a job with some kind of weakness. Let the interviewer know you recognize yours, and explain how you’re working to eliminate it.

4- Why are you interested in working for this company:

I’ve had to bluff my way through plenty of food service job interviews asking me to explain what was so special about the giant, hamburger-slinging corporation I was trying to work for.

If I could conjure an answer other than, “You pay money and don’t do drug tests,” you can prepare a few reasons you’d love to work for your potential employer.

What do you love about the company’s mission and the work it does? What about its culture appeals to you? Do you have any special connection to their services as a customer or community member?

5- Where do you see yourself in five years ? ten years?

You might have your life together better than I do, but at 30 I don’t know how to answer this ubiquitous question.

In an interview, I’m not afraid to say, “I don’t know,” and it hasn’t disqualified me from a position yet.

If you want to be (or at least appear) more decisive, mention your future dreams and aspirations. What the interviewer really wants to hear is you have goals and working here will help you achieve them in the long run.

6- Why do you want to leave your current Job/ Company?

Your answer to this question should be pretty straightforward.

But if parting with your current or latest job wasn’t amicable, expecting this question in advance can help you prepare the, er, most “flattering” way to present the truth.

7- Tell me about an accomplishment you are most proud of?

This is your chance to brag!

Take a breather: This is one of the more simple job interview questions.

You can probably even tell the whole truth this time.

8- Tell me about a time you made a mistake?

Gah! I’ve been blindsided by this one.

It’s not a problem to acknowledge past mistakes in a job interview — but it can sting to be surprised by this one.

Present a mistake, then follow it up with what you learned or how you fixed whatever problem you might have caused — at work, school or in life.

9- How would your boss and co-workers describe you?

Can you guess the best way to prepare an answer for this question?

Ask your boss and co-workers!

If your job doesn’t offer feedback while you work, ask for it. It’ll help you improve in your current position and prepare yourself for the next one.

10- Describe yourself

I don’t know about you, but I’m a Midwest-raised introvert.

I don’t excel at explaining my special tics to a stranger — without sounding like a weirdo.

But that’s sort of the point. This is a chance to showcase your personality and why it’s a good fit for the company.

You don’t have to lean too hard on your qualifications yet — save that for the next question.

11- Why should we hire you?

By this point, an interviewer knows your work history, experience, qualifications and even a bit about your personality.

What they want to know now is Why should they hire you and not someone else?

Explain what you alone bring to the position and why no one else can do it like you will. Explain how you’ll uniquely fit into the team.

12- What are your salary requirements

If you’re intimidated by the idea of talking about money, you’re not alone.

But ultimately, your job comes down to money, so you can’t avoid it.

Research your industry and position before you start to interview, and determine your comfortable salary range.

Keep that number in mind, along with any accompanying benefits — and be prepared to explain why you deserve them.

13- Describe a time when you went above and beyond the requirements for a project?

If you have a long work history, bragging about your work ethic might be easy.

If you’re interviewing for your first job — or your first professional  job — this could take some digging.

Consider any experience in which you took impressive initiative on a project — in a volunteer role, on a class project, as a part of a student organization or even in a church group.

If you can’t think of one now, start taking some initiative!

14- Describe a time when you disagreed with your boss?

When an interviewer asks about a disagreement with your boss, what she’s really asking is, “How do you resolve a disagreement with your boss?”

Don’t harp on the details.

Focus on how gracefully you handle tricky situations.

15- What are your co-worker pet peeves

This question is less about selling yourself to a company — finally! — and more about determining whether you’ll jive with potential co-workers.

Be honest.

If you can’t stand a Chatty Kathy and hate Happy Hour with the staff, mention it (kindly).

Explain what kind of team you’ll excel with, so you can avoid being stuck with a group you can’t stand.

16- What are your hobbies?

Why does your future employer care whether you’re into basket-weaving or kickboxing on the weekends?

I can’t say for sure.

But I suspect this is just one more way to get to know you and your personality.

Use it to showcase your passion — an employer wants to know what gets you up in the morning, and what lights a fire under you.

17- Describe your ideal workday

Like talking about your preferred co-workers, describing your ideal workday can help the interviewer understand how you’ll fit in — or not — with the company culture.

Go beyond your preferred schedule for the day.

Explain when and how you work best, so they understand you know how to capitalize on your (and, eventually, their) time.

18- How do you work under pressure?

Some people thrive on looming deadlines and a packed-to-the-minute schedule.

Some shut down the second the pressure’s on. Which are you?

There’s not a set right way to manage under pressure, so you don’t have to bluff.

Instead, consider this pending question motivation to learn how to keep your cool and stay productive when work gets tough, so you can brag about your skills in an interview.

19 – What questions haven’t I asked you?

We love this one in journalism, too.

It may sound like a cop-out — Excuse me, but aren’t you the interviewer here?

Actually, asking what questions we haven’t asked is a smart interviewer’s way of learning what’s important to an interviewee.

Take this opportunity to point out uncommon successes and relevant experiences that they wouldn’t think to ask about.

20- What questions do you have for me?

The most common interviewing advice I hear across industries is, “Have something to ask them.”

It didn’t always make sense to me when I was first starting to work. It felt forced.

And, anyway, what questions was I going to ask? I did my research before applying for the job.

But showing your curiosity and interest in the company is important. Ask away!

Prepare for your next job interview by right-clicking the full checklist to save it.

Your Turn: What job interview questions have surprised you? Share them in the comments to help other readers prepare!




Academics, Human resources

Generation X,Y: Definition and Properties

Generations time line:

The time line represents the generations, is a very subjective to opinion of different sociology scientists, and differ wildly among different countries as it is related to incidents affected the Americas and Europe.

Generation timeline.png

  Figure 1: Generation timeline



Generations’ properties: [1]

Generation X

(Born: 1966-1976 – Coming of Age: 1988-1994 – Age in 2017: 41 to 51)

Sometimes referred to as the “lost” generation, this was the first generation of “latchkey” kids, exposed to lots of daycare and divorce.
Known as the generation with the lowest voting participation rate of any generation, Gen “X”ers were quoted by Newsweek as “the generation that dropped out without ever turning on the news or tuning in to the social issues around them.”
Gen X is often characterized by high levels of skepticism, “what’s in it for me” attitudes and a reputation for some of the worst music to ever gain popularity. Now, moving into adulthood William Morrow (Generations) cited the childhood divorce of many Gen Xers as “one of the most decisive experiences
influencing how Gen Xers will shape their own families”.
Gen Xers are arguably the best educated generation with 29% obtaining a bachelor’s degree or higher (6% higher than the previous cohort). And, with that education and a growing maturity they are starting to form families with a higher level of caution and pragmatism than their parents demonstrated. Concerns
run high over avoiding broken homes, kids growing up without a parent around and financial planning.

Generation Y, Echo Boomers or Millenniums

(Born: 1977-1994 – Coming of Age: 1998-2006 – Age in 2017: 23 to 40)

The largest cohort since the Baby Boomers, their high numbers reflect their births as that of their parent generation. The last of the Boomer Is and most of the Boomer II s. Gen Y kids are known as incredibly sophisticated, technology wise, immune to most traditional marketing and sales pitches…as they not only
grew up with it all, they’ve seen it all and been exposed to it all since early childhood.
Gen Y members are much more racially and ethnically diverse and they are much more segmented as an audience aided by the rapid expansion in Cable TV channels, satellite radio, the Internet, e-zines, etc.
Gen Y are less brand loyal and the speed of the Internet has led the cohort to be similarly flexible and changing in its fashion, style consciousness and where and how it is communicated with.
Gen Y kids often raised in dual income or single parent families have been more involved in family purchases…everything from groceries to new cars. One in nine Gen Yers has a credit card co-signed by a parent.

Generation Z

(Born: 1995-2012 – Coming of Age: 2013-2020 – Age in 2017: 5-22)

While we don’t know much about Gen Z yet…we know a lot about the environment they are growing up in. This highly diverse environment will make the grade schools of the next generation the most diverse ever. Higher levels of technology will make significant inroads in academics allowing for customized
instruction, data mining of student histories to enable pinpoint diagnostics and remediation or accelerated achievement opportunities.
Gen Z kids will grow up with a highly sophisticated media and computer environment and will be more Internet savvy and expert than their Gen Y forerunners.[2]


Human resources

Human resources: Human resource and competitive advantage, using the VRIO (value – rarity – imitability – organization) approach.


VRIO analysis:
VRIO is a business analysis framework that forms part of a firm’s larger strategic scheme. The basic strategic process that any firm goes through begins with a vision statement, and continues on through objectives, internal & external analysis, strategic choices (both business-level and corporate-level), and strategic implementation. The firm will hope that this process results in a competitive advantage in the marketplace they operate in. [1]

VRIO falls into the internal analysis step of these procedures, but is used as a framework in evaluating just about all resources and capabilities of a firm, regardless of what phase of the strategic model it falls under.

VRIO is initials for the four question framework asked about a resource or capability to determine its competitive potential:

  • The question of Value,
  • The question of Rarity,
  • The question of Imitability (Ease/Difficulty to Imitate),
  • The question of Organization (ability to exploit the resource or capability).

Once the analyst has realized the value, rarity and imitability of the company’s resources and capabilities, the next step is to organize the company in a way to exploit these resources. If done successfully, the company can enjoy a period of sustained competitive advantage.[2]

The competitive advantage:

In general, a firm has a competitive advantage when it is able to create more economic value than rival firms. Economic value is simply the difference between the perceived benefits gained by
a customer that purchases a firm’s products or services and the full economic cost of these products or services.[3]

Human resource as a competitive advantage [4]


HR executives must start their functions with a eye on the bottom-line and address a primary question “How can HR aid in either decreasing costs or increasing revenues?”.
In today’s time when everyone is talking numbers; the HR department has to prove its worth and show that it creates value for the organizations. HR can help a firm achieve sustainable competitive advantage by creating value.

Example: FedEx, which are the market leaders in the courier business, believe people are the primary link in the value chain, and thus, value is created by focusing on employees first. HR practices should be related to employee attitudes which would be consequently related to customer satisfaction.




Only value alone cannot help the HR department to achieve sustainable competitive advantage for organizations. HR executives must examine how to develop and exploit rare characteristics of the firm’s human resources to gain competitive advantage. If the same characteristic of human resources is found in many competing firms, then that characteristic cannot be a source of competitive advantage for any one of them. In order to drive the strategic decisions, HR executives should being the ‘rare’ factor in the talent they recruit.

Example: Nordstrom is one of the most reputed brands in the retail sector. The recruiting process, compensation practices and culture at Nordstrom’s have helped the organization to maintain the highest sales per square foot of any retailer in the nation.


If the competitors in the business can easily imitate what you offer, then you are at loss! The HR executives must attempt to develop and nurture characteristics of the firm’s human resources that cannot easily be imitated by competitors. This essentially means leveraging on organization’s unique history or culture that helps in gaining competitive advantage. In any organization, the culture is nurtured and developed via the HR Department. Hence, by restricting and developing unique culture, executives can help firms in gaining competitive advantage.

Example: Even after purchasing the safety training programs, DuPont’s competitors are simply unable to match DuPont’s safety record. DuPont’s superior safety performance stems at least partly from its unique history that competitors find impossible to imitate.


In order for any characteristic of a firm’s human resources to provide a source of sustained competitive advantage, the firm must be organized to exploit the resource. Organization requires developing the systems and practices that allow human resources characteristics to bear the fruit of their potential advantages.

Example: Both General Motors and Ford recruit assembly line workers from the same basic labor market. But, Ford has been more successful at developing a cooperative, team-based culture than General Motors. Clearly the HR function, through either directly controlling or strongly influencing the characteristics of human resources in organizations plays an important role in developing and maintaining a firm’s competitive advantage.

The VRIO framework enables business people in HR to transform the HR function into a contributor to firm performance rather than a drain on firm resources. Today, HR is not merely a burden on the organization and HR executives should communicate the ‘economic reason’ which compels the organizations to invite HR Executives to the strategic planning “table”.[5]

[1] (Strategic Management Insight | SMI)

[2]Barney, Jay B and Hesterly, William S. Strategic Management and Competitive Advantage: Concepts. 2005 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 07458  (Barney, 2005)

[3] (Barney, 2005)

[4] (Sharma, 2012)

[5] (Sharma, 2012)

Human resources

Human resource management: Definition and Challenges


The process of defining HRM leads us to two different definitions:

The first definition of HRM:
The process of managing people in organizations in a structured and thorough manner
This covers the fields of staffing (hiring people), retention of people, pay and perks setting and management, performance management, change management and taking care of exits from the company to round off the activities. This is the traditional definition of HRM which leads some experts to define it as a modern version of the Personnel Management function that was used earlier.

The second definition of HRM:
Encompasses the management of people in organizations from a macro perspective.
i.e. managing people in the form of a collective relationship between management and employees. This approach focuses on the objectives and outcomes of the HRM function. What this means is that the HR function in contemporary organizations is concerned with the notions of people enabling, people development and a focus on making the “employment relationship” fulfilling for both the management and employees.[1]

Other definitions:

Human Resource Management (HRM): The policies, practices, and systems that influence employees’ behavior, attitudes, and performance.[2]

humna resource management practices
Figure 1: Human resources management practices


Figure 1, emphasizes that there are several important HRM practices that should support the organization’s business strategy: analyzing work and
designing jobs, determining how many employees with specific knowledge and skills
are needed (human resource planning), attracting potential employees (recruiting),
choosing employees (selection), teaching employees how to perform their jobs and
preparing them for the future (training and development), evaluating their performance (performance management), rewarding employees (compensation), and creating a positive work environment (employee relations).
An organization performs best when all of these practices are managed well.
At companies with effective HRM, employees and customers tend to be more satisfied, and the companies tend to be more innovative, have greater productivity, and develop a more favorable reputation in the community[3]

Human resource management: It is designed to maximize employee performance in service of an employer’s strategic objectives[4]

Human Resource Management (HRM) is the function within an organization that focuses on the recruitment of, management of, and providing direction for the people who work in an organization.[5]

HMR is the process of hiring and developing employees so that they become more valuable to the organization.

Human Resource Management
includes conducting job analyses, planning personnel needs, recruiting the right people for the job, orienting and training, managing wages and salaries, providing benefits and incentives, evaluating performance, resolving disputes, and communicating with all employees at all levels. Examples of core qualities of HR management are extensive knowledge of the industry, leadership, and effective negotiation skills, formerly called personnel management.[6]


Key HR Challenges for HR Managers
Figure 2: Key HR Challenges for HR Managers

  • Environmental challenge: are the forces external to the firm. They influence organizational performance but are largely beyond management’s control.
  • Organization challenges: Concerns or problems internal to a firm; often a by-product of environmental forces.
  • Individual challenges: Human resource issues that address the decisions most pertinent to individual employees.


Environmental challenges

  • Rapid change: Many organizations face a volatile environment in which change is nearly constant.

Human resources are almost always at the heart of an effective response system.[7]
Here are a few examples of how HR policies can help or hinder a firm grappling with external change:

  • New company town: As firms experience high pressure to become more productive and deal with very short product life cycles (often measured in months), Labor force are working longer, harder, and faster, as studies prove American do.
  • Dealing with stress: Rapid change and work overload can put employees under a great deal of stress. The Bureau of Labor Statistics reported that 50 percent of the 19.8 million Americans who say they work at home at least once a week aren’t compensated for it. In other words, millions of employees must work at home just in order to catch up.
  • Rise of the internet: almost all firms use the Internet as part of their normal business practices. The Internet is having a pervasive impact on how organizations manage their human resources, as the following examples show:
    • Necessitating greater written communication skills
    • Dealing with information overflow
    • Breaking down labor market barriers
    • Using online learning
    • Enabling HR to focus on management
  • Workforce diversity: Managers across the United States are confronted daily with the increasing diversity of the workforce. In 2012, approximately 34 percent of the U.S. workforce was from a minority group, including African Americans (12%), Asian Americans (4.7%), Latinos (15%), and other minorities (2%).[8]
    These trends are likely to accelerate in the future. The U.S. population is expected to increase by 50 percent by 2050, with minority groups comprising nearly half of the population. Nonwhite immigrants, mostly Hispanics, will account for 60 percent of this population growth. Despite fears that immigrants are not assimilating, children of immigrants actually do better than children of natives in the same socioeconomic class.
    All these trends present both a significant challenge and a real opportunity for managers.[9]
  • Legalization: Much of the growth in the HR function over the past four decades may be attributed to its crucial role in keeping the company out of trouble with the law.
  • Evolving work and family roles: The proportion of dual-career families, in which both wife and husband (or both members of a couple) work, is increasing every year.
    More companies are introducing “family-friendly” programs that give them a competitive advantage in the labor market.[10]
  • Skill shortages and the rise of the service sector: S. manufacturing has dropped dramatically in terms of the percentage of employees who work in that sector.
    Most employment growth has taken place in the service industry. The categories with the fastest growth are expected to be professional specialties (27 percent) and technical occupations (22 percent). The fastest-growing occupations demand at least two years of college training.
  • Natural disasters: Employers had to suddenly deal with HR issues that they had given little thought to before. These included deciding whether to keep paying employees who were unreachable and unable to report to work: paying for a variety of living expenses for displaced staffers in temporary living quarters, providing telecommuting equipment for employees working from hotels, awarding hazardous duty pay, hiring temporary employees (many of whom were undocumented workers) to fill the labor void, and preventing the loss of key talent to competitors outside the disaster area.[11]
  • Globalization: One of the most dramatic challenges facing U.S. firms as they enter the second decade of the twenty-first century is how to compete against foreign firms, both domestically and abroad. The Internet is fueling globalization, and most large firms are actively involved in manufacturing overseas, international joint ventures, or collaboration with foreign firms on specific projects. Currently the companies on the S&P 500 generate 46 percent of their profits outside the United States, and for many of the biggest U.S. names, the proportion is much higher. The implications of a global economy for human resource management are many. Here are a few examples:
    • Worldwide company culture: Some firms try to develop a global company identity to smooth over cultural differences between domestic employees and those in international operations. Minimizing these differences increases cooperation and can have a strong impact on the bottom line. For instance, the head of human resources at the European division of Colgate Palmolive notes, “We try to build a common corporate culture. We want them all to be “Colgaters.”
    • Worldwide recruiting: Some firms recruit workers globally, particularly in the high technology area, where specialized knowledge and expertise are not limited by national boundaries.

Global recruitment, however, is no panacea because good employees everywhere are in high demand, and there may not be as much information available to make the appropriate selection decision.

  • Industrial metamorphosis: The proportion of the American labor force in manufacturing has dropped to less than 10 percent, down from 25 percent about 30 years ago. Similar drops have been experienced in several European countries, including England, Germany, and France. According to the Economist, “It has happened because rich-world companies have replaced workers with new technology to boost productivity and shifted production from labor-intensive products such as textiles to higher-tech, higher value-added, sectors such as pharmaceuticals. Within firms, low-skilled jobs have moved offshore.”
  • Global alliances: International alliances with foreign firms require a highly trained and devoted staff. For instance, Philips (a Dutch lighting and electronics firm) became the largest lighting manufacturer in the world by establishing a joint venture with AT&T and making several key acquisitions, including Magnavox, parts of GE Sylvania, and the largest lighting company in France.
  • A virtual workforce: S. firms are tapping skilled foreign labor but not moving those workers to the United States. The Internet is making this possible with little additional expense.
  • The global enterprise: companies today spread over many countries, Example: Coca-Cola spreads over 206 countries and 80 % of the sales revenue comes from outside the U.S.  
  • Wage competition: American workers were considered a middle class, until the mechanization and the immigration which lead to steep cuts in the wages.

Organization challenges

  • Competitive position: cost, quality, distinctive capabilities
    • Controlling costs: A compensation system based on reward strategies can reduce labor costs, training employees to make them more efficient and productive, managing health and safety.
    • Improving quality: Many companies have implemented total quality management (TQM) initiatives, designed to improve the quality of all the processes that lead to a final product or service.
    • Creating distinctive capabilities: use people with distinctive capabilities to create unsurpassed competence in a particular area.
  • Decentralization: Transferring responsibility and decision-making authority from a central office to people and locations closer to the situation that demands attention.
  • Downsizing: Periodic reductions in a company’s workforce to improve its bottom line—often called downsizing—are becoming standard business practice, even among firms that were once legendary for their “no layoff” policies, such as IBM, Kodak, and Xerox.[12]
  • Organizational restricting: over the past 20 years, reduction of the middle management, lead to a flatter organizational hierarchy in order to become more effective.
  • Self-managed work teams
  • The growth of small businesses: small businesses face higher risk of failure, 40% in the first year and 60% in the third year, which make effective human resource management a crucial element of success.
  • Technology: the rise of robotic industries, the use of data ethically, the rise of telecommunication (telecommuters), electronic monitoring, the increase in egalitarianism.
  • Internal security: security background checks for employees.
  • Data security: keeping the employees data and privacy secured.
  • Outsourcing: Subcontracting work to an outside company that specializes in and is more efficient at doing that kind of work.
  • Product integrity: effectively monitor the integrity of products or subcomponents that are made in foreign countries.
  • Organizational culture: The basic assumptions and beliefs shared by members of an organization. These beliefs operate unconsciously and define in a basic taken-for-granted fashion an organization’s view of itself and its environment.
    The key elements of organizational culture are:
  • Observed behavioral regularities when people interact, such as the language used and the rituals surrounding deference and demeanor.
  • The norms that evolve in working groups, such as the norm of a fair day’s work for a fair day’s pay.
  • The dominant values espoused by an organization, such as product quality or low prices.
  • The philosophy that guides an organization’s policy toward employees and customers.
  • The rules of the game for getting along in the organization—“the ropes” that a newcomer must learn to become an accepted members.
  • The feeling or climate that is conveyed in an organization by the physical layout and the way in which members of the organization interact with one another, customers and outsiders.

Individual challenges

Individual Challenges: human resource issues that address the decisions that affect individuals.

  • Matching people and organization: Research suggests that HR strategies contribute to firm performance most when the firm uses these strategies to attract and retain the type of employee who best fits the firm’s culture and overall business objectives.[13]
  • Ethical dilemmas and social responsibilities: in a world when business scandals are regular news, whether it is Enron, WorldCom or other company, employees’ fears that their employers will behave unethically are increasing, so much so that many firms and professional organizations have created codes of ethics outlining principles and standards of personal conduct for their members.
    Unfortunately, these codes often do not meet employees’ expectations of ethical employer behavior.
  • Productivity: is a measure of how much value individual employees add to the goods or services that the organization produces. The greater the output per individual, the higher the organization’s productivity.
    In a “knowledge-based economy” driven by technology, the success of organizations will depend more and more on the value of intangible human capital.
  • Empowerment: Providing workers with the skills and authority to make decisions that would traditionally be made by managers.
    Empowerment can encourage employees to be creative and to take risks, which are key components that can give a firm a competitive edge in a fast-changing environment.
  • Brain drain: The loss of high-talent key personnel to competitors or start-up ventures.
    This loss of intellectual property results when competitors lure away key employees. Important industries such as semiconductors and electronics also suffer from high employee turnover when key employees leave to start their own businesses.
    This brain drain can negatively affect innovation and cause major delays in the introduction of new products.
    Brain drain can be a genuine risk not only on an organizational level, but also, on a counter level, leading the overall weakness of the society.
  • Job insecurity: Companies argue that regardless of how well the firm is doing, layoffs have become essential in an age of cutthroat competition. For employees, however, chronic job insecurity is a major source of stress and can lead to lower performance and productivity.

Bibliography (2017). Human Resource Management (HRM) – Definition and Concept. Retrieved 2 28, 2017, from MSG management study guide:
Judge, S. P. (2015). Essentials of Organizational Behavior Edition 13 Global. New York: Pearson.
Mejia, C. |. (2012). Managing human resources 7th edition. New York: Pearson.
Raymond Noe, J. H. (2014). Fundamentals of Human Resource Management, sixth edition. New York: Mc Graw Hill Education.
The Balance. (2016, 10 2). Beyond Hiring and Firing: What is HR Management? Retrieved 2 28, 2017, from The Balance:
Wood, D. G. (2009). Human resource management: A critical approach. London: Routledge.
Zeuch, M. (2016). Handbook of Human resource management. Murten, Switzerland: Springer.
[1] (, 2017)
[2] (Raymond Noe, 2014)
[3] (Raymond Noe, 2014)
[4] (Wood, 2009)
[5] (The Balance, 2016)
[6] human resource management (HRM). Retrieved February 25, 2017, from website:
[7] (Mejia, 2012)
[8] Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2011). Labor force characteristics. .
[9] (Mejia, 2012)
[10] (Mejia, 2012)
[11] Newsline. (2005, October 12). Many employees displaced by Katrina to take on payrolls indefinitely. .
[12] (Mejia, 2012)
[13] (Judge, 2015)